As for understanding the Left-Right political debate, there are numerous models available. I don't think any of the ones I've been exposed have been comprehensive, so I created my own -- deficiencies and all.
My model is circular, lying horizontally like the equator. At the front-centre is the theoretical balance between state and private control. Here the state has full sovereignty and always enforces the 'social contract' for the benefit of all people, while the citizenry, the private sector, has the freedom to pursue its own ambitions and bloom with autonomy. As you move further to the left or to the right, there is a corresponding increase in state or private control, respectively. The extreme in either direction, at the back-centre, is where all power converges into the hands of either the state or private interests. Here, unabashedly, stands fascism.